Brood XIV populations bordering Brood X may sometimes be mistaken for populations of Brood X because the broods share boundaries, are offset by four years, and four-year early or late stragglers from either brood could easily be attributed to the wrong brood (see Lloyd and White 1976). Brood X exists in four distinct patches: 1) A large, central patch extending form northeast Georgia to southern Ohio; 2) A smaller patch in central Pennsylvania; 3) Populations on Long Island; and 4) Populations on Cape Cod. In Ohio, populations of Broods VI, X, and XIV are closely associated, and local populations may be switching from one brood schedule to another (see Kritsky 1992, Kritsky and Young 1992, Kritsky et al. 2009). Both Long Island and Cape Cod populations are unusual for their occurrence on sandy soil.
Cooley, J. R., G. Kritsky, M. D. Edwards, J. D. Zyla, D. C. Marshall, K. B. R. Hill, G. J. Bunker, M. L. Neckermann, and C. Simon. 2011. Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.): The distribution of Broods XIV in 2008 and “XV” in 2009. The American Entomologist 57:144-151.
Kritsky, G. 1992. The 1991 emergence of the Periodical Cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp.: Brood XIV) in Ohio. Ohio Journal Of Science 92:38-39.
Kritsky, G., A. Hoelmer, M. Noble, and R. Troutman. 2009. Observations on periodical cicadas (Brood XIV) in Indiana and Ohio in 2008 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp.). Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Sciences 118:83-87.
Kritsky, G., and F. N. Young. 1992. Observations on periodical cicadas (Brood XIV) in Indiana in 1991 (Homoptera: Cicadidae). Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Sciences 101:59-61.
Lloyd, M., and J. A. White. 1976. Sympatry of Periodical Cicada Broods and the Hypothetical Four-Year Acceleration. Evolution 30:786-801.
Marlatt, C. L. 1923. The Periodical Cicada. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology Bulletin 71:1-183.
Simon, C. and Lloyd, M. 1982. Disjunct synchronic population of 17-year periodical cicadas: Relicts or evidence of polyphyly? Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 110, 275-301.
Simon, C. 1988. Evolution of 13- and 17-year periodical cicadas. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 34:163-176.