The Mississippi Valley Brood
Brood XXIII contains all four described species of 13-year periodical cicadas Magicicada neotredecim, Magicicada tredecim, M. tredecassini, and M. tredecula.
Stannard (1975) published a map of all Illinois periodical cicada broods. In Stannard’s map, his “Eastern disjunct” of Brood III in DeWitt, Piatt, and Champaign Counties is actually a disjunct of Brood XXIII.
Reproductive Character Displacement
The pattern of reproductive character displacement (RCD) between Magicicada neotredecim and M. tredecim is less pronounced in Brood XXIII than in Brood XIX, because few populations of Magicicada neotredecim are found in the absence of M. tredecim.
Generally, where M. neotredecim and M. tredecim overlap, they exhibit a pattern of reproductive character displacement in calling song pitch and female pitch preferences. Within the zone of displacement, the dominant male call pitch of M. neotredecim is 1.7 kHz, while outside the contact zone, its call pitch is ca. 1.4 kHz, identical to that of its putative ancestor, M. septendecim.
Cooley, J. R., C. Simon, D. C. Marshall, K. Slon, and C. Ehrhardt. 2001. Allochronic speciation, secondary contact, and reproductive character displacement in periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.): genetic, morphological, and behavioural evidence. Molecular Ecology 10:661-671.
Cooley, J. R., C. Simon, and D. C. Marshall. 2003. Temporal separation and speciation in periodical cicadas. Bioscience 53:151-157.
Kritsky, G., and R. A. Meyer. 1976. The emergence of the Periodical Cicada (Brood XXIII) in Illinois in 1976. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 69:196-197.
Lloyd, M., G. Kritsky, and C. Simon. 1983. A Simple Mendelian Model for 13- and 17- Year Life Cycles of Periodical Cicadas, with Historical Evidence of Hybridization Between Them. Evolution 37:1162-1180.
Marlatt, C. L. 1923. The Periodical Cicada. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology Bulletin 71:1-183.
Marshall, D. C., and J. R. Cooley. 2000. Reproductive character displacement and speciation in periodical cicadas, with description of a new species, 13-year Magicicada neotredecim. Evolution 54:1313-1325.
Marshall, D. C. 2001. Periodical cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae) life-cycle variations, the historical emergence record, and the geographic stability of brood distributions. Annals Of The Entomological Society Of America 94:386-399.
Martin, A., and C. Simon. 1988. Anomalous distribution of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers in periodical cicadas. Nature 336:237-239.
Martin, A., and C. Simon. 1990. Differing Levels of Among-Population Divergence in the Mitochondrial DNA of Periodical Cicadas Related to Historical Biogeography. Evolution 44:1066-1080.
Simon, C. 1988. Evolution of 13- and 17-year periodical cicadas. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 34:163-176.
Simon, C., J. Tang, S. Dalwadi, G. Staley, J. Deniega, and T. R. Unnasch. 2000. Genetic evidence for assortative mating between 13-year cicadas and sympatric “17-year cicadas with 13-year life cycles” provides support for allochronic speciation. Evolution 54:1326-1336.
Stannard, L. J. 1975. The distribution of periodical cicadas in Illinois. ll. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes 91:3-12.